Tag Archives: Greenhouse gas

Drilling Down on Fracking: Latest News Plus Background

Image: insurancequotes.org

Image: insurancequotes.org

Not to be too Mr. Moto* about it, but it’s no exaggeration to say that the expansion of fracking, aka hydraulic fracturing, has been extremely controversial. The relatively new drilling practice, developed about 60 years ago but widely employed only within the past decade or so, involves pumping hundreds of thousands of gallons of water, sand and chemicals into the ground at each drill site to break up shale and release natural gas that had previously been inaccessible. It’s the subject of much protest over groundwater contamination and other potential ill effects. The fracking industry says the practice is safe and praises it for reducing oil imports, while environmental activists loudly warn of eco-catastrophe-for-profit and a disastrous delay in the quest for renewable energy sources amid worsening global warming.

Perhaps you’ve seen actor Mark Ruffalo at the anti-fracking forefront (here’s his CNN opinion piece with Greenpeace exec Phil Radford, from April 2013). And then there’s the feature film “Promised Land,” written by stars Matt Damon and John Krasinski and directed by Gus Van Sant. Previously, Josh Fox’s HBO documentaries about the largely unregulated industry, “GasLand” and “GasLand 2,” saw some acclaim. The fracking industry responded in kind, underwriting the film “TruthLand,” a pro-industry rebuttal to Fox. The likes of Popular Mechanics Scientific American and Discover have tried to clarify points of contention.

Meanwhile, a new study finds that more than half of Americans still know nearly nothing about fracking (below). I, for one, still have a lot to learn. It strikes me as an under-policed industry racing for purchase and profit ahead of federal, state and local regulation that should, eventually, mitigate fear and damage done — hopefully sooner than later (again, Mr. Moto speaks). But some say it’s already too late for regulation, and only bans will be effective.

Recent fracking news:

Fracking contamination found in water wells in 4 states – The Associated Press

In at least four U.S. states that have nurtured the nation’s energy boom, hundreds of complaints have been made about well-water contamination from oil or gas drilling, and pollution was confirmed in a number of them, according to a review of complaints in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Texas that casts doubt on industry suggestions that such problems rarely happen. The lack of detail in some state reports could help fuel public confusion and mistrust.

U.S. EPA unlikely to step up fracking enforcement efforts for now, say analysts – Reuters

Federal regulators are unlikely to step up enforcement of potential water contamination cases linked to natural gas drilling — despite new concerns about water safety — given a lack of political will and limited resources to pursue such cases, analysts said.

Study shows fracking is bad for babies – Bloomberg

Researchers from Princeton University, Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute for Technology looked at Pennsylvania birth records from 2004 to 2011 to assess the health of infants born within a 2.5-kilometer radius of natural-gas fracking sites. They found that proximity to fracking increased the likelihood of low birth weight by more than half, from about 5.6% to more than 9%. The chances of a low Apgar score, a summary measure of the health of newborn children, roughly doubled, to more than 5%.

Study finds few know what fracking really is – Caspar Star-Tribune (Wyoming, U.S.)

A survey published by researchers at Oregon State, George Mason and Yale universities found that more than half of respondents reported knowing little or nothing of fracking. And almost 60% said they had no opinion on the subject.

Colorado communities could ban fracking under new proposed amendment – The Huffington Post

A proposed amendment to Colorado’s constitution that would give municipalities the power to ban or restrict fracking and other industrial activities would be the first of its kind nationwide if it passes.

(*Moto = Master of the Obvious)

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Filed under Environment, Fracking, Groundwater, Industry, North America, Pollution, Research, Technology

Study: Freshwater Shortage Will Double Climate Change’s Impact on Agriculture

Experts expect global warming to have a negative impact on crop yields, but shortages of water for irrigation could make for double the trouble, according to a study published yesterday.

As described in ScienceDaily, “given the present trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural models estimate that climate change will directly reduce food production from maize, soybeans, wheat and rice by as much as 43 percent by the end of the 21st century. But hydrological models looking at the effect of warming climate on freshwater supplies project further agricultural losses, due to the reversion of 20 to 60 million hectares of currently irrigated fields back to rain-fed crops.”

The study’s lead author, Joshua Elliot, said the analysis is the first of its kind to feature an in-depth comparison of agricultural and hydrological models, which resulted in dramatically different results from other research.

“It’s a huge effect, and an effect that’s basically on the same order of magnitude as the direct effect of climate change,” Elliott, a research scientist with the Computation Institute’s Center for Robust Decision Making on Climate and Energy Policy (RDCEP), Argonne National Laboratory, is quoted as saying. “So the effect of limited irrigation availability in some regions could end up doubling the effect of climate change.”

The “good” news, if any, is that some areas will most likely see more precipitation, which could mitigate some of the effects of shortages, the study says.

The study, entitled “Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change” and conducted under the auspices of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Filed under Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Research

Unchecked Emissions Will Drain Water Resources, Warns Leaked UN Report

Photo: MarkDhawn

Photo: MarkDhawn

The Hindu newspaper of India says that a United Nations report leaked online warns of dire consequences for freshwater resources if greenhouse gases remain unchecked.

The report is reportedly a final draft by the Working Group II of the UN Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), sent to all governments for comment before being finalized and released.

“In response to on-going climate change, terrestrial and marine species have shifted their ranges, seasonal activities, migration patterns, and abundance, have demonstrated altered species,” notes the report’s summary, adding that  developing countries, especially, are vulnerable to damaging climatic events (e.g., heat waves, droughts, floods and wildfires).

Regarding freshwater availability, the summary warns:

“Climate change will reduce renewable surface water and groundwater resources significantly in most dry subtropical regions, exacerbating competition for water among sectors. Each degree of warming is projected to decrease renewable water resources by at least 20% for an additional 7% of the global population.”

As the report notes, dried-up water sources will hurt crop yields even as demand surges with population growth.

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Filed under Climate Change, Environment, Research, United Nations, Water Shortage